December 25, 2023
The production of oil or gas is a complex, time-consuming and cost-intensive endeavor, but in principle, every wellbore goes through three stages: drill pipe drilling, casing lining and tubing production.
Drill holes with drill pipe
Drill pipe is a durable steel tube that conducts force to the drill bit. In many cases, the drill pipe turns the drill bit, which cuts into the rock until it reaches the sediment. The last piece of drill pipe before the drill bit is usually a non-magnetic drill collar, especially in horizontal drilling. Drilling a well with drill pipe is the first stage of every wellbore. At the same time, the drilling mud cools the drill bit and brings cuttings, or cut rock, back to the surface.
Bushings and Bushings
The outer tube is called the casing. Casing lines the wellbore, thereby protecting soil layers, especially groundwater, from contamination from drilling mud and/or fracturing fluids. It also stabilizes the wellbore, so the casing must be able to withstand particularly high loads. Drilling and casing are alternated - the drill string is taken out at specific intervals and the wellbore is lined with casing and cemented. Then continue drilling.
Tubing carries oil and natural gas from deep inside the well to the surface-the third stage of the wellbore. Oil and gas occasionally rise to the surface on their own; often, pumps are required to move the fluid to the surface.
Oil pipe is naturally smaller in diameter than casing, except for its 4 1/2-inch diameter. An outside diameter of 114.3 mm (4 1/2 inches) is considered the threshold and can be either casing or tubing. The smaller ones are called tubing and the larger ones are called casing.
From the surface to the bottom of the well, casing continues to shrink in size – and there are many types of casing depending on purpose and diameter. The "start point" is where the wellbore gradually transitions from vertical to horizontal. Thanks to horizontal drilling, mineral deposits can be mined in a more targeted manner. Finally, the drill string is removed and the production casing is inserted into the wellbore and cemented in place. The well is then fractured and tubing is installed within production casing.
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|Ms. Kelly Zhang