September 26, 2023
What is difference between grain oriented and non grain oriented steel?
There are two major types of fully processed electrical steels: grain-oriented (GO) and non-oriented (NO). The fundamental difference between these two types is the direction of magnetisation: GO grades show optimal magnetic behaviour in one direction only, whereas NO grades have magnetic properties that are as isotropic as possible. This corresponds to the requirements of the standard applications of these products: GO for transformers and NO for motors/generators. The typical field lines in these machines explain why rotating machines need multidirectional magnetisation, whereas for transformers, unidirectional magnetisation within the limbs requires only one preferred direction of magnetisation.
GO and NO electrical steels therefore have different thermo-mechanical production processes, leading to different magnetisation characteristics, resulting essentially from different crystallo-graphic textures. This gives GO steels better magnetic properties in the rolling direction, while NO steels may have better properties in the transverse direction (loss curve comparison for GO grade M6 compared to NO grade M235-35A). The production process for GO steel, with its specific Goss texture, is more complex than for NO grades, which have a cubic fibre texture, and this is reflected in the higher price of GO grades.
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